International public health has undergone a significant transformation over the years, with the emergence of new paradigms alongside the old ones. Here are some of the key differences between the old and new paradigms:
Vertical approach: The old paradigm was characterized by a vertical approach, which focused on the control and eradication of specific diseases, such as smallpox, polio, and malaria, through targeted interventions.
Disease-centered: The old paradigm was disease-centered, which means that interventions were aimed at controlling specific diseases rather than improving overall health.
Top-down approach: The old paradigm was a top-down approach, with decisions made at the national or international level, with little input from local communities or individuals.
Horizontal approach: The new paradigm is characterized by a horizontal approach, which aims to address the underlying social, economic, and environmental determinants of health, rather than focusing solely on disease control.
Health-centered: The new paradigm is health-centered, with a focus on improving overall health and well-being, rather than just controlling specific diseases.
Participatory approach: The new paradigm is a participatory approach, which involves working with local communities and individuals to identify their health needs and design interventions that are culturally appropriate and sustainable.
Overall, the new paradigm emphasizes a more holistic and inclusive approach to public health, which recognizes that health is influenced by a range of factors beyond the control of the health sector.